Microcontroller Components for Robotic Constructing

The method in designing and constructing the robotic arm are based on the operational characteristics and features of the microcontrollers, the electronic circuit diagram, stepper motors, and features of the microcontroller and stepper motors.

Circuit Diagram
The components of the electronic circuit diagram are the MCU, the LATCH 74LS373, the EPROM 2732, Intel 8255 PIO, resistors, diodes, capacitors, inductors, op-amp, and transistors. This components work together to achieve the set target of controlling the anthropomorphic like arrangement of the stepper motor. The microcontroller is the processing device that coordinates all the activities of all the components for proper functioning.

Power Supply
This is used to power the whole system, e.g. the control unit, magnetic sensing unit, and the stepper motors. The transformer is a 220/12V step down transformer. We used a bridge rectifier to convert the 12V alternating current to direct current.

The unregulated output from the filtering circuit is fed into a voltage regulator LM7805 and LM7812. These two are chosen for the design because the LM 7805 has an output of +5V which we required to power the control unit, and the Magnetic coil while the LM7812 has an output of +12V which is required to power the stepper motors.

MCU 8051
This is the processor. It coordinates the robotic arm operation by collecting information from the LATCH, the EPROM, and the PIO; interprets and then execute the instructions. It is the heart of the whole system.

This is a D-type transparent latch. It is an 8 bit register that has 3 state bus driving outputs, full parallel access for loading, and buffer control inputs. It is transparent because when the enable EN (enable) input is high, the output will look exactly like the D input.

8225 PIO
This is a programmable input/output device. It interfaces the connection between the 8051, the LATCH 74LS373, and the EPROM 2732 to external devices such as the stepper motors thereby allowing for communication.

EPROM 2732
It use this external EPROM specifically because it makes the controller cheaper, allows for longer programs, and its content can be changed during runtime and can be saved after power off.

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